Many things, metals are usually melted and made into something else. Newspapers and books are made into newsprint, cereal boxes, paper egg cartons, and ceiling tiles etc. Glass bottles are crushed, melted and recycled into more glass bottles, or used along with sand and gravel in asphalt roads.
Plastic bottles such as milk, shampoo and detergent bottles are ground up, washed and melted to produce plastic parts for automobiles, plastic lumber and other plastic products. This way everything is recycled into something useful. I give away all my non recyclable garbage to Junk It junk removal service and others are given to a recycler nearby.