What Is The Process Of Saponification And What Are Detergents?


1 Answers

Shumaela Rana Profile
Shumaela Rana answered
Most of the soaps now- a- days are made commercially in large units called kettles. Animal fat or tallow is placed at the bottom of the large tank and alkali (NaOH) is added. This reaction of separation of soap from fats is called saponification. The raw materials used for this process are:
1: Tallow is the principle fatty material in soap making. Other than tallow any vegetable oil, e.g; linseed oil and palm oil may also be used.

2: caustic soda or caustic potash KOH.

During this reaction, the mixture is boiled and mixed with steam which escapes from the holes in the steam coil. Common salt is added to the soap and glycerin mixture in a process called salting out. Glycerin dissolves in a solution of salt which is heavier than soap and settles down while the soap keeps on floating at the top. The salt water-glycerin solution is drained from the bottom of tank from which glycerin is recovered as a by-product.

Detergents are the salts of organic sulphonic acids the general formula of a detergent is sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate. All these detergents contain a polar group. For example, sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate.
Detergents are dissolved in the water reduce the inter molecular attractive forces between the water molecules. Therefore, the water containing some detergent enters into the clothes with greater ease and cleans them.

Answer Question