When the power goes out while the compressor is running, the high pressure side of the compressor takes a little while (from a few seconds to several minutes) to bleed down to normal pressure. When the power comes back on fairly quickly, the compressor tries to restart, but the motor makes much less torque at startup and it can't overcome the high pressure still on the output and stalls (can't turn). A stalled compressor will damage itself fairly quickly.
Most compressors have a circuit breaker that will shut off power for a minute or two if the compressor is stalled so it doesn't get damaged. It sounds like your compressor had a circuit breaker that's either faulty or didn't kick in fast enough to avoid damage.
And, BTW, the US line frequency is 60 Hz. That frequency is determined by how fast the power plant generators are spinning. There will be no appreciable differences in the line frequency when power is turned back on (if anything, it'll go down slightly until the generators compensate for the added load). However, there can be some large voltage spikes that show up as power is restored that might (briefly) look like a higher frequency signal.
This must be due to the fact that your refrigerator compressor has malfunctioned.This happens when a power failure occurs and then returns with more than necessary voltage.
Here in the US we have 80 Hertz. If you can picture a very long eight (8). When the power is off because of a power outage and starts back up from the transformer located on the power pole out back they start up around 110 Hertz. It expands the eight to a very thin zero if you look at a ocolator. It will burn up motor windings on motors and compressors in A/C. Next time turn off A/C, heat, dryer off at the panel box. Then wait a couple of minutes after the power returns then turn on at the panel box. Sorry I feel your compressor is damaged. Get a HVAC tech. To check it out. Good luck.